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Linguistics

Dear writer, please find the instructions, the final project proposal, the annot

Dear writer, please find the instructions, the final project proposal, the annotated bibliography, and an example paper attached.
Please format in APA7 and let me know if you have any questions. Thank you.

Categories
Linguistics

Research in applied linguistics: becoming a discerning consumer (3rd ed.).

Dear writer, the questions pertain to chapters of the following two books: Perry, F. L., Jr. (2017). Research in applied linguistics: Becoming a discerning consumer (3rd ed.). Routledge. Schmitt, N., & Rodgers, M. P.H. (Eds.). (2020). An introduction to applied linguistics (3rd ed.). Routledge. No outside sources, please. Thank you for your help.

Categories
Linguistics

Research in applied linguistics: becoming a discerning consumer (3rd ed.).

Dear writer, the questions pertain to chapters of the following two books: Perry, F. L., Jr. (2017). Research in applied linguistics: Becoming a discerning consumer (3rd ed.). Routledge. Schmitt, N., & Rodgers, M. P.H. (Eds.). (2020). An introduction to applied linguistics (3rd ed.). Routledge. No outside sources, please. Thank you for your help.

Categories
Linguistics

Answer this question in one to two paragraphs (10 points).

Dear writer, please find all readings attached.
Directions: The open-book exam is based on topics addressed in course readings and class discussions. It consists of three parts (Part A, Part B and Part C). Be sure to complete all parts. Your responses will be evaluated based on content (48 points) and use of academic writing conventions (2 points). If you quote from course readings in your responses to the exam questions, be sure to provide the source and page number for the quotation. Use of sources in addition to course readings is not required.
Part A. Define five (5) of the following terms in your own words. For each term, provide an example to clarify your definition (15 points). If you define all terms, only the first five will count.
Direct tests (3 points)
Norm-referenced tests (3 points)
Integrative tests (3 points)
Reliability coefficient (3 points)
Backwash (3 points)
Cloze tests (3 points)
Part B. Answer this question in one to two paragraphs (10 points).
Define validity. Then, discuss how two types of evidence for validity may be established for achievement tests.
Part C. Choose one of the following questions and respond to the question in a well-developed essay (4-5 well-developed paragraphs). (23 points).
Question 1
You teach an intermediate-level ESL writing class at an English Language Institute. The intermediate-level ESL writing course is designed to improve students’ skills in writing comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and argumentative essays. Students in your class come from diverse language and cultural backgrounds.
Note: If needed, you may add more specific information about the context of the course. 2
To answer this question:
• Create a writing prompt for the argumentative writing assignment and explain how your prompt addresses the content, language, task, and rhetorical variables discussed in Reid and Kroll’s guidelines for designing effective writing prompts (9 points).
• Explain how you plan to score the completed essays (i.e., whether you plan to use holistic scoring, analytical scoring or another scoring method) and justify your choice of the scoring method (7 points). There is no need to create a scoring rubric.
• Discuss the steps you plan to take to enhance the reliability of scoring (7 points).
Question 2
This question consists of three parts. Be sure to answer all parts.
• Drawing on specific interviewer strategies reported in Brown’s article “Interviewer variation and the co-construction of speaking proficiency,” explain how interviewers can influence the speaking proficiency of test candidates (9 points).
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the oral proficiency interview as a method for testing speaking (7 points).
• Discuss the steps which may be taken to enhance the reliability of oral proficiency interviews (7 points).

Categories
Linguistics

Define validity.

Dear writer, please find all readings attached. Directions: The open-book exam is based on topics addressed in course readings and class discussions. It consists of three parts (Part A, Part B and Part C). Be sure to complete all parts. Your responses will be evaluated based on content (48 points) and use of academic writing conventions (2 points). If you quote from course readings in your responses to the exam questions, be sure to provide the source and page number for the quotation. Use of sources in addition to course readings is not required. Part A. Define five (5) of the following terms in your own words. For each term, provide an example to clarify your definition (15 points). If you define all terms, only the first five will count. Direct tests (3 points) Norm-referenced tests (3 points) Integrative tests (3 points) Reliability coefficient (3 points) Backwash (3 points) Cloze tests (3 points) Part B. Answer this question in one to two paragraphs (10 points). Define validity. Then, discuss how two types of evidence for validity may be established for achievement tests. Part C. Choose one of the following questions and respond to the question in a well-developed essay (4-5 well-developed paragraphs). (23 points). Question 1 You teach an intermediate-level ESL writing class at an English Language Institute. The intermediate-level ESL writing course is designed to improve students’ skills in writing comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and argumentative essays. Students in your class come from diverse language and cultural backgrounds. Note: If needed, you may add more specific information about the context of the course. 2 To answer this question: • Create a writing prompt for the argumentative writing assignment and explain how your prompt addresses the content, language, task, and rhetorical variables discussed in Reid and Kroll’s guidelines for designing effective writing prompts (9 points). • Explain how you plan to score the completed essays (i.e., whether you plan to use holistic scoring, analytical scoring or another scoring method) and justify your choice of the scoring method (7 points). There is no need to create a scoring rubric. • Discuss the steps you plan to take to enhance the reliability of scoring (7 points). Question 2 This question consists of three parts. Be sure to answer all parts. • Drawing on specific interviewer strategies reported in Brown’s article “Interviewer variation and the co-construction of speaking proficiency,” explain how interviewers can influence the speaking proficiency of test candidates (9 points). • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the oral proficiency interview as a method for testing speaking (7 points). • Discuss the steps which may be taken to enhance the reliability of oral proficiency interviews (7 points).

Categories
Linguistics

You should be able to make claims about the discourse based on this analysis, taking into account the context which the discourse is in.

The writing requires three elements.
1.transcribe spoken data consistently using a transcriiption key; A one-minute speech is selected in Appendix A, and the writing is analyzed only for the selected one-minute speech. (where Appendix A-(2) is the recording; Appendix A-(1) is the text version of the recording)
2.analyse spoken data using two approaches covered in the Appendix B; There are many methods of analysis in Appendix B, and only two of them were selected for spoken data analysis. (The analysis process is written as a table like Appendix C-(3), Appendix C-(4)Appendix C-(5) Appendix C-(6). The tables are placed after the text and before the references and appendixes)
3.critically evaluate the use of different approaches for discourse analysis.Write about 2,500 words of discourse analysis methods in the main text section (you can refer to Appendix C-(1) Appendix C-(2))
INSTRUCTIONS You will be given a set of spoken data. You need to choose a 1-minute section of this data, transcribe and analyse the data using two of the following approaches – Conversational Analysis / Pragmatics / Speech Function Network. The analysis should be explained in the main body of the assessment, with examples from the analysis given to back up claims made about the discourse. The main body should be 2,500 words (10% over / under the word limit is allowed). You will then need to critically evaluate the discourse analysis approaches you used with reference to academic literature (where appropriate). The transcriiption and the coded discourse analysis should be presented in the appendix.
accurately analyse the spoken data using the chosen approaches; make valid claims about the spoken data on the basis of the analysis; critically evaluate the two discourse analysis approaches used with reference to literature; clearly present the transcriiption, transcriiption key and analysis in the appendix; express your ideas in a well-structured manner, in an appropriate tone, free of language errors, without plagiarism.
You should be able to make claims about the discourse based on this analysis, taking into account the context which the discourse is in. You should also explain clearly how you carried out each analysis, explaining where you had difficulties making coding decisions and how you overcame these difficulties. The claims about the discourse you make in the assignment should be backed up with evidence from the analysis in the main body of the assignment. You should also have a clearly presented appendix section showing the analysis that you did. Finally, an evaluation of the different methods should be included which is nuanced and supported by reference to academic literature.
student will complete one 2,500-word assessment (10% over or under the word limi t is allowed). This will involve transcribing and analysing spoken data using different frameworks and crit ically evaluating their use. The word limit does not include the references and appendixes.
Reading Requirements: Please read Appendix B and the following references before writing. (Appendix B is the core)。
Addit ionally, the following foundational texts are good to read in preparation for the course. Palt ridge, B. (2022). Discourse analysis: An int roduction (3rd ed.). Bloomsbury Academic. Thompson, G. (2014). Int roducing functional grammar (3rd). London: Routledge.

Categories
Linguistics

Student will complete one 2,500-word assessment (10% over or under the word limi t is allowed).

The writing requires three elements.
1.transcribe spoken data consistently using a transcriiption key; A one-minute speech is selected in Appendix A, and the writing is analyzed only for the selected one-minute speech. (where Appendix A-(2) is the recording; Appendix A-(1) is the text version of the recording)
2.analyse spoken data using two approaches covered in the Appendix B; There are many methods of analysis in Appendix B, and only two of them were selected for spoken data analysis. (The analysis process is written as a table like Appendix C-(3), Appendix C-(4)Appendix C-(5) Appendix C-(6). The tables are placed after the text and before the references and appendixes)
3.critically evaluate the use of different approaches for discourse analysis.Write about 2,500 words of discourse analysis methods in the main text section (you can refer to Appendix C-(1) Appendix C-(2))
INSTRUCTIONS You will be given a set of spoken data. You need to choose a 1-minute section of this data, transcribe and analyse the data using two of the following approaches – Conversational Analysis / Pragmatics / Speech Function Network. The analysis should be explained in the main body of the assessment, with examples from the analysis given to back up claims made about the discourse. The main body should be 2,500 words (10% over / under the word limit is allowed). You will then need to critically evaluate the discourse analysis approaches you used with reference to academic literature (where appropriate). The transcriiption and the coded discourse analysis should be presented in the appendix.
accurately analyse the spoken data using the chosen approaches; make valid claims about the spoken data on the basis of the analysis; critically evaluate the two discourse analysis approaches used with reference to literature; clearly present the transcriiption, transcriiption key and analysis in the appendix; express your ideas in a well-structured manner, in an appropriate tone, free of language errors, without plagiarism.
You should be able to make claims about the discourse based on this analysis, taking into account the context which the discourse is in. You should also explain clearly how you carried out each analysis, explaining where you had difficulties making coding decisions and how you overcame these difficulties. The claims about the discourse you make in the assignment should be backed up with evidence from the analysis in the main body of the assignment. You should also have a clearly presented appendix section showing the analysis that you did. Finally, an evaluation of the different methods should be included which is nuanced and supported by reference to academic literature.
student will complete one 2,500-word assessment (10% over or under the word limi t is allowed). This will involve transcribing and analysing spoken data using different frameworks and crit ically evaluating their use. The word limit does not include the references and appendixes.
Reading Requirements: Please read Appendix B and the following references before writing. (Appendix B is the core)。
Addit ionally, the following foundational texts are good to read in preparation for the course. Palt ridge, B. (2022). Discourse analysis: An int roduction (3rd ed.). Bloomsbury Academic. Thompson, G. (2014). Int roducing functional grammar (3rd). London: Routledge.

Categories
Linguistics

Evaluate the approach with reference to relevant research: e.g., are the books suitable for the students targeted/taught?

Please choose Option A: Analysis of course materials. The aim of this essay is to analyze two books designed to teach a second language (in this case English) and identify and evaluate their approaches to teaching specific language skills (speaking, reading, writing, listening). However, please choose only one/two of these language skills to analyze and choose the same skills to analyze for both books (if talking about “speaking” in Book 1, you have to also talk about “speaking” in Book 2.
The two books to write about are the “New Headway Beginner English Student’s Book” and the “New Headway Intermediate English Student’s Book” which I have attached as files here.
The most important thing is to identify the books’ approach or approaches (if the books use more than one approach) to teach one or two main language skills (choose ONE/TWO from speaking, reading, writing, and listening) and discuss and evaluate these approaches with reference to relevant theories and research. The main general approaches to teaching a second language we learned are: Grammar-based, Audiolingualism (USA), Structural Situational (UK), and Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Another important thing is to compare how the two books may use two different approaches to teach the same specific language skills. Analyze the reason why Book 1 (beginner book) applied a different approach compared to Book 2 (intermediate book) to teach the skill of speaking for example. Why do they choose to use two different approaches to tackle the same skill but at different levels?
Furthermore, the structure of the essay should be something like:
Provide brief background information about the books
Describe how the books approach the teaching of one or two main skill/s + evidence
Analyze and discuss the approaches to teaching the skill/s and present evidence from the books
Support your claims with specific examples from the books (take screenshots and put in the Appendix) and from required readings + additional reading/research (use in-text citations as well).
Evaluate the approach with reference to relevant research: e.g., are the books suitable for the students targeted/taught? How effective are the two books in teaching the specific language skill?
The make the structure more coherent, you can divide the essay into sections. For example section 1 can be about Book 1 (beginner book), section 2 about Book 2 (intermediate book), and section 3 about the comparison and differences between Book 1 and Book 2.
Another crucial thing is to please remember to refer to certain sections/excerpts from the two books (activities/exercises/tasks the books use) as examples to refer/support the analysis and evaluation. Please put screenshots of the activities or excerpts from the two books in the Appendix. You can put multiple Appendices, for example, Appendix 1 A can be about an excerpt from Book 1, Appendix 1 B about another excerpt from Book 1, Appendix 2 A about an excerpt from Book 2, and so on. There is no need to use too many examples or excerpts from the books. It is more important to pick and choose the most important or salient ones to analyze and refer to.
Further detailed assignment instructions are provided in the attached file named “Assignment 3 Instructions 2022” and the marking criteria are also provided in the file named “Assignment 3 Grading Criteria.” Useful readings are also provided in the files. However, if needed please also use other sources and research to build the arguments and points made in the essay.

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Linguistics

Reading response questions on article by mumford & atay (2021).

Reading response questions on article by Mumford & Atay (2021). Be sure to answer each of the following questions in a short paragraph using your own words.
The reading is attached. No outside sources please.

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Linguistics

They also have a sustained laugh and respond to their name being said.

This assignment is for a Communication/language development Class
The focus of this chapter is the interactions seen between infants and caregivers. This interactive relationship plays an important role in communication. Describe the interactions that develop during one of the first 12 months of life. Choose whichever month or range that you find most interesting. This is a well written paragraph that is a discussion so no citation is required.
An example provided
During the 4-6 month age period the interactions between caregiver and infant have progressed substantially. Rituals or routines provide predictable patterns of resulting behavior or communication. This results in the infant becoming upset with the caregiver when the pattern has changed. Games involve a new pattern of communication where there is an exchange of turns and communication with partnering skills. There are rules and placement for words and actions. Interacting with the caregiver the infant now can babble with more bilabial sounds and exhibit different sentence patterns and vocalizations for present attitude. They also have a sustained laugh and respond to their name being said. They imitate facial expressions more and there is a social aspect to their sound production, regulating volume and pitch. At six months old vocalizations have an understood social/ communicative value and the infant has developed better hand-eye coordination. Interactions now include infant-caregiver-object.